It was based on guide-books popular among Hellenic sightseers and includes only works located around the Mediterranean rim.
The notion of “Seven Wonders” can be traced to a Hellenistic recognition of trans-cultural human achievement that found expression throughout the Hellenistic world. check book…
The historian Herodotus and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (c. 305 – 240 B.C.E.) made early lists of “seven wonders,” but these writings have not survived, except as references.
A later list, under various titles such as De septem orbis spactaculis and traditionally, though incorrectly, attributed to the engineer Philo of Byzantium, may date as late as the fifth century C.E., although the author writes as if the Colossus of Rhodes, destroyed by an earthquake in 224 B.C.E., were still standing.
The basic characteristics of each of the Seven Wonders are given in the table below:
Wonder Date of construction Builder Notable features Date of destruction Cause of destruction
Great Pyramid of Giza 2650 – 2500 B.C.E. Egyptians Built as the tomb of Fourth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu. Still standing –
Hanging Gardens of Babylon 600 B.C.E. Babylonians Herodotus claimed the outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high (although some archaeological findings suggest otherwise). After first century B.C.E. Earthquake
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus 550 B.C.E. Lydians, Persians, Greeks Dedicated to the Greek goddess Artemis, the temple was begun by Croesus of Lydia and took 120 years to build. It was destroyed by arson in 356 B.C.E., rebuilt and destroyed during a raid by the Goths in 262, rebuilt again and finally demolished by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom. 356 B.C.E. and 401 C.E. Arson and later demolition
Statue of Zeus at Olympia 435 B.C.E. Greeks Occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple that was built to house it, and was 40 feet tall. fifth and sixth centuries C.E. Fire
Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus 351 B.C.E. Persians, Greeks Stood approximately 135 feet tall with each of the four sides adorned with sculptural reliefs. Origin of the word mausoleum. by 1494 C.E. Earthquake
Colossus of Rhodes 292 – 280 B.C.E. Hellenistic Greece A giant statue of the Greek god Helios roughly the same size as today’s Statue of Liberty in New York. 224 B.C.E. Earthquake
Lighthouse of Alexandria Third century B.C.E. Hellenistic Egypt Between 383 feet to 440 feet tall it was among the tallest man-made structures on Earth for many centuries. 1303 – 1480 C.E. Earthquake
The following is a typical representative of such lists:
Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa
Great Wall of China
Porcelain Tower of Nanjing
Leaning Tower of PisaStonehenge